Glenn Melvin; Week 4 MED1022; HLSD
Male 78.7, females 83.5 expectancy. Social role is a set of cultural guidelines as to how someone should behave, particularly with others. Those associated with gender are learnt in infancy. Gender stereotypes exist. 4 year olds already have stereotypes, by preschool knowledge of stereotyped traits emerges, beyond preschool knowledge of flexibility is evident. Girls have larger vocabularies, spell better. Boys are better at math aptitude but girls score better in courses. Boys are more rapid and accurate in visual-spatial tasks. Girls are more compliant with directions, better at interpreting emotions; boys are more physically aggressive.
Gender typing is process by which children acquire a gender identity and the motives, values and behaviours considered appropriate in their culture for members of the opposite sex. Gender identity is understanding or acceptance that one is a boy or a girl. Informed by nature and nurture.
Bandura's social learning theory of gender identity states that gender identity is learned through operant conditioning (appropriate behaviours are rewarded and encouraged, inappropriate are discouraged), observation of others (learning through behaviours of others, parents, teachers, high profile people).
Kohlberg is cognitive theory of gender identity, gender labelling from 0-30mths, gender stability by 3-4 years, gender consistency from 4-5 years (does not change despite appearance change); stages 2 and 3 are gender constancy. Gender identity is complete by 6 or 7.
John Money suggests gender is not established before 2, identity is established through socialisation from 2 to 7, mostly determined by nurture, can be surgically reassigned before 2 years.