Glenn Melvin; Week 2 MED1022; HLSD
Eriksen's stages of psychosocial development:
Basic trust vs mistrust (infancy): responsiveness and consistency of caregiving helps to develop trust and openness in the child, if these are not met a child develops wariness and a lack of comfort.
Autonomy vs shame and doubt (1-3): children develop a sense of control over their own actions, if autonomy is not achieved children are ashamed and doubt their own capabilities.
Initiative vs guilt (3-5): children develop imagination, play becomes purposeful and involves playing roles, initiative and cooperation can be developed.
Security in the presence of others along with need for physical closeness is attachment, children who form attachments are more likely to survive, attachments are usually formed with the mother but not necessarily. Preattachment is birth- 6 weeks, attachment in the making is 6-8 weeks to 6-8 months, true attachment is 6-8 months to 18 months, reciprocal relationships are from 18 months on.
Strange situation experiment introduces children and mothers to a room, mother leaves, on her return child's reaction was studied. Secure attachment is where on return a child stops crying, comforted, returns to exploring. Avoidant is on return child ignores mother or turns away; resistant is where baby is difficult to console and remains upset, disorganised is where child is confused and unsure of reaction. Secure attachments are more confident and successful with peers, have less conflicts with friendships with peers
Around 1 children engage in parallel play, alongside each other without much interaction. 15-18 months they smile at each other in simple social play. 2 years they engage in cooperative play, play roles and interact. Make believe roles reflect values and traditions, promotes cognitive development, may help children to explore topics that frighten them. Imaginary playmates promote imagination and sociability. Solitary play is not necessarily bad, wandering aimlessly or hovering over others may be a negative indication.
Between 2-3 children prefer to play with own gender, girls support peers in enabling, boys contradict, threaten and compete with peers. Older children are more likely to cooperate, children who observe peers cooperating are more likely to imitate them. Children are mroe likely to cooperate when peers are responsive to their attempts. Prosocial behaviour benefits others.