Craig Hassed; Week 7 MED1011; HEP
Mental health set to become largest burden of illness in 10-20 years, due to lifestyle and direct physiological effects. Anxiety is to be upset over a future event, physical and psychological effects, disabling and disproportionate to level of threat. Stress is a percieved inability to cope, can cover anxiety, fear, depression, exhaustion etc. Stress affects behaviour, symptoms, resistance and disease. ANS regulates bodily functions, has SNS and PNS. SNS is fight or flight, increased blood flow, increased metabolism, prepares for tissue repair, is overactivated in stress and can cause damage. Women tend to have tend and befriend response, secreted at times of bonding, nurturing, breast feeding and relationships. Prolonged SNS activation causes allostatic load leading to wear and tear. Leads to immune dysregulation, atheroschlerosis, metabolic syndrome, bone demineralisation, atrophy of neurons. Metabolic syndrome is central obesity, hypertension, diabetes and hyperlipidaemia, risk increases due to high adrenaline and cortisol in SNS overactivation.
Psychoneuroimmunology studies connection of mind and nervous system. Acute stress activates immunity, chronic stress suppresses immunity. Illness has more severe symptoms if stress is involved. HIV has worse progression with stress. Stress is also pro-inflammatory. Efficacy of vaccinations is affected by stress. Can also affect DNA functionality and repair capacity, as well as higher amounts of telomere shortening. Psychological factors may cause effects due to chemical mediators by HPA axis (cortisol), genetic mutation, repair, ageing and expression, effects on NK cells, hormones with anti-cancer effects, better compliance, healthier lifestyle. SNS stimulation bad in CVD, increases HR and BP, causes vasoconstriction, proarrhythmic, worsening endothelial function, endothelial injury, platelet activation, hemostatic changes occur.